NSS-ICT‎ > ‎Unit A‎ > ‎

Chapter 01

Chapter 1 Introduction to information processing

1.1 Basic concept of Input Process Output

Open the shared folder 2015-2016_S4ICT - SectionA
Create a Google Docs called S4XYY_chapter1 where 4X is your class and YY is your class number.

Comments of setting permission:
- Setting permission is important in ICT. Sharing is a security control.
- You should not change other's file permission for fun.
- 3 of you haven't create the file in the folder. 4B10 set up 2 file, 4C01 set a wrong file name.
   Your file name should be strictly followed the format
- By default, the file is shared to all S4 ICT students. So you should change the permission. 
   You are the owner,  rhs-ct@rhs.edu.hk CAN EDIT, Remove other users.

Q1: Advantage of computer?
Fast / accurate
Huge storage space

Q2: Activities 1 (P.5)

1.  Buying Drinks through a vending machine.
Input object:
Coins / Money

Action taken:
Select the drinks
Output object:

2.   Washing clothes with a washing machine
Input object:
Dirty Clothes

Action taken:
Washing Clothes
Clean Clothes

Five Basic components in a computer
- Input device
- Output device
- Storage device: Primary / Main memory (RAM, ROM) , Secondary Storage (Hard disk, DVD/RW, USB drive, memory card)
  Can a computer run without Hard disk?
  Can a computer run without Main memory?
- Communication device

Q3: Name several Input devices. (at least 5)
- mouse / trackball

- keyboard
- Web camera
- Scanner
- Microphone

Q4: Name several Output devices 
(at least 5)

- Printer

- Monitor, Projector

- speaker

- headphone / earphone

Q5: State five types of multimedia elements.

Text, Graphics, Audio, Video, animation

1.2 Use of stored Programs

Program is a sequence of commands.
You should load your program into Main memory (RAM) before execution.

Scripting language: *.cmd / *.bat  in windows,  javascript
Other program: App Inventor, Scratch.

Without Secondary storage, you have to retype the program every time you boot up a computer

1.3 Difference between data and information

Data is a collection of raw facts. 
Information is data has been organised.

Some hot topics: Big Data, Data mining

1.4 Types of data

1 Byte = 8 bits
KB: KiloByte
MB: MegaByte
GB: GigaByte
TB: TeraByte
PB: PetaByte
Discuss in more details in chapter 3

Raw data: Text, image, video, audio
Animation is generated by computer.
More details will be discussed in Chapter 4.

Text are represented by character coding system

Demo: debug command in windows, dump, trace, unassembly

Q6 Complete the following 2 tables
Common Character coding system
character coding system Storage used in 1 characterLanguage 
 ASCII / EDBDIC 1 Byte English
 Big 5 2 Bytes Traditional Chinese
 GB 2 Bytes Simplified Chinese
 Unicode 1 - 4 Bytes Multi-language

  How to input?
 File format
 Text Typing (Keyboard)
 scan bar code (scanner)
 Scanner +
      Optical Character Recognition
 microphone + 
 handwriting board +
     Speech Recognition

 txt: plain text
 rtf: rich text format


 bmp, jpg (jpeg),  png, gif, 


1.5 Components of an information system.

Information System transform data into information
Data --> Information 

Common objective of an information system
- forecasting
- planning
- coordination
- control
- decision making
- operational activities

Library using manual system
 Purposes automated the borrowing system
 - search book faster (efficient)
 - librarian track the status of book efficiently

 Data Book catalog
 student information
 borrowing record
Usually handled by Database in an information system.
 Process Borrowing books
 print overdue report
 generate usage report
 Technologies Hardware:
   A server / some client PC with bar code reader
 Software: a library system (Database)
 Network: a LAN / Web server
 Personnel Development and maintenance
 - System analyst
 - programmer

 - technician
 - Network manager
 - data entry operator
 - Libraian

Q7 Refer to P.13-17 of the textbook,  Complete the 2 tables below
Example: A point of sales System (Example)

At the front end, the point of sales terminal
 InputProcess (stored program)Output 
At the back end, it can preform Inventory control, Sales analysis etc.

An information system consists of five interrelated components:
 Personnel Development and maintenance


1.6 Information process
Information Life Cycle 
Example: to automate the library system
 Data collectionTechniques:  Personal interview, telephone interview, survey and questionnaire

Target: librarian, user
online survey: http://www.my3q.com
Organized the data (Many Information system will have its Database)

The database has at least 3 tables:
Student Record
Book Record (information of the book)
Borrowing Record

  Storage Media to store:
 DVD, USB drive, Memory card, harddisk

Store in the hard disk of server
Backup to a NAS

 Processing Sorting, searching, merging, calculating
 word processing, image processing etc

Go to http://www.hkpl.gov.hk

 Analysis Extract useful information
 produce statistics, reports, trend analysis
Transmission TCP/IP, networking etc
 Presentation Present your information using charts, lists etc


1.7 Information Technology and the Information Age

Web based services
In S1-S3, we learnt Google Doc, Sheets, Presentation, Scratch, App Inventor.

Some new terms:
IoT: Internet of Things (萬物互聯)
O2O: Online to Offline.

Information age:
Information spreads rapidly and widely. 
People can access up-to-date information easily.

Knowledge based society


Communication networks
- Broadband
- Mobile network: 3G / 4G

- Information literate

Answer the questions in Self Assessment corner (P.33)
   submission: Sept 22

Home work on Google Docs (Submit on Oct 7)
P.34 - P.38.
MC: 1- 10
SQ: 1-3
LQ: 1 - 2

Test on Oct 9 (Day 10) - 1 hour